Category Archives: Shakati/Waterberg: Geomorphology and Geology


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Welcome to the Seventh edition of Shakati Bush Facts. In the article, we will be focusing on the Mokolo River, which runs side by side with Shakati Private Game Reserve. Rivers are an important lifeline for the bush, and contain its own ecosystem.

How does the Mokolo River flow?

Shakati RIver - HDR (3)

The Mokolo River starts in the Waterberg Mountains between the koppies (Confluence of the Sand River with the Grootspruit River), and flows through a steep gorge into the Vaalwater town. From there it flows past Shakati via flat area until it enters the Mokolo Dam. From the Mokolo Dam it flows past another gorge where it finally enters the Limpopo River. Continue reading SHAKATI BUSH FACTS #7 – MOKOLO RIVER




Welcome to the Fourth edition of Shakati Bush Facts. In the article, we will be focusing on the Waterberg Biosphere. This article is part of a two part series. The first article will focus on the Waterberg Biosphere, and the second will focus on the climate, ecology and other aspects of the Biosphere.

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Shakati/Waterberg: Geomorphology and Geology

Shakati/Waterberg: Geomorphology and Geology

Shakati is a portion of the farm Jacobsdal and is approximately 625 hectares in extent. The farm is situated within the Mokolo river catchment area app. 20 km north-west of Vaalwater and the Mokolo river flow through the farm towards north-west, where it later goes through Mokolo dam and then joins Limpopo River. Shakati lies at an altitude of about 1400m above sea level. (By comparison, Johannesburg is at an altitude of 1600-1800m and Pretoria at 1400-1550m). Shakati farm receives an average of about 600mm of rainfall per annum, mainly between November and March.

The geology of the region consists of a sequence of mainly sedimentary rocks varying in total thickness from 1500m to as much as 7000m. Some volcanic units occur at the base of the sequence, near Alma. This impressive succession is known collectively as the Waterberg Group of rocks, and has been dated as being of paleo-Proterozoic age, that is, between 2.0 and 1.6 billion years ago. The characteristic reddish colour of the Waterberg sediments is due to the presence of iron oxides, which in turn could only have been formed in the presence of free oxygen. The Waterberg ‘red beds’ therefore reflect the presence, at this early point in the Earth’s evolution, of considerable quantities of oxygen in the atmosphere and are the oldest examples known.

The Waterberg Group rests unconformably on top of the rocks of the Transvaal Supergroup (which form the hills around Pretoria and the Magaliesberg) and also above the igneous rocks of the Bushveld Complex, which occupy the area of the Springbok Flats and stretch westwards to Rustenburg and northeast towards Mokopane (Potgietersrus). All of these rock groups in turn are much younger than the sediments of the Witwatersrand Supergroup, which are 2.8-3.0 billion years old and which contain the gold reefs that provided the basis for South Africa’s gold mining industry.

This succession of large sedimentary basins, starting with the Witwatersrand 3 billion years ago and progressing upward through the Transvaal, the Bushveld Complex, the Waterberg and finally the Karoo, is a reflection of the remarkable geological stability that has characterised the southern part of the African continent virtually since the beginning of the geological record. This stable region, known as the Kaapvaal Craton, is one of only a few in the world – another is the Canadian shield – where very thick sequences of rocks can be found that represent almost the whole geological history of the earth, largely undistorted by the major volcanic or tectonic events that surrounded them.